Macros is short for Macronutrients, which is the basic breakdown of the food we eat
There are MACROnutrients which are Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and then there are MICROnutrients which are the vitamins, minerals, amino acids, sugars and other things we get from our food.
There are three macronutrients. While each of these macronutrients provides calories, the amount of calories that each one provides varies.
In carbohydrates, there are 4 calories per gram
In proteins, there are 4 calories per gram
In Fats, there are 9 calories per gram
WHY WE NEED CARBOHYDRATES?
Carbohydrates are the macronutrient that we need in the largest amounts. According to research, between 45% – 65% of calories should come from carbohydrate. This is because:
- Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of fuel.
- Carbohydrates are easily used by the body for energy.
- All of the tissues and cells in our body can use glucose for energy.
- Carbohydrates are needed for the central nervous system, the kidneys, the brain, the muscles (including the heart) to function properly.
- Carbohydrates can be stored in the muscles and liver and later used for energy.
- Carbohydrates are important in intestinal health and waste elimination.
- Carbohydrates are mainly found in starchy foods (like grain and potatoes), fruits, milk, and yogurt. Other foods like vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds and cottage cheese contain carbohydrates, but in lesser amounts.
Fibre refers to certain types of carbohydrates that our body cannot digest. These carbohydrates pass through the intestinal tract intact and help to move waste out of the body. Diets that are low in fibre have been shown to cause problems such as constipation and hemorrhoids and to increase the risk for certain types of cancers such as colon cancer. Diets high in fibre; however, have been shown to decrease risks for heart disease, obesity, and they help lower cholesterol. Foods high in fibre include fruits, vegetables, and whole grain products.
WHY WE NEED PROTEIN?
According to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by research 10% – 35% of calories should come from protein. Most people get plenty of protein, and easily meet this need by consuming a balanced diet. We need protein for:
- Growth (especially important for children, teens, and pregnant women)
- Tissue repair
- Immune function
- Making essential hormones and enzymes
- Energy when carbohydrate is not available
- Preserving lean muscle mass
- Protein is found in meats, poultry, fish, meat substitutes, cheese, milk, nuts, legumes, and in smaller quantities in starchy foods and vegetables.
When we eat these types of foods, our body breaks down the protein that they contain into amino acids (the building blocks of proteins). Some amino acids are essential which means that we need to get them from our diet, and others are nonessential which means that our body can make them. Protein that comes from animal sources contains all of the essential amino acids that we need. Plant sources of protein, on the other hand, do not contain all of the essential amino acids.
WHY WE NEED FAT?
Although fats have received bad press for causing weight gain, some fats are essential for survival. Research shows that 20% – 35% of calories should come from fat. We need this amount of fat for:
- Normal growth and development
- Energy (fat is the most concentrated source of energy)
- Absorbing certain vitamins ( like vitamins A, D, E, K, and carotenoids)
- Providing cushioning for the organs
- Maintaining cell membranes
- Providing taste, consistency, and stability to foods
Fat is found in meat, poultry, nuts, milk products, butters and margarines, oils, lard, fish, grain products and salad dressings. There are three main types of fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and trans fat. Saturated fat (found in foods like meat, butter, lard, and cream) and trans fat (found in baked goods, snack foods, fried foods, and margarines) have been shown to increase your risk for heart disease. Replacing saturated and trans fat in your diet with unsaturated fat (found in foods like olive oil, avocados, nuts, and canola oil) has been shown decrease the risk of developing heart disease.